Parkinson’s Disease and Parkinsonism – An Overview

Posted on August 13, 2018

Parkinsonism is a syndrome, or collection of symptoms and signs, characterized by bradykinesia (slowed movements), tremors, loss of balance, and stiffness. The most common type of parkinsonism is Parkinson’s disease, which accounts for about 80 percent of cases. Other types of parkinsonism include drug-induced parkinsonism, multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), vascular parkinsonism, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Read more about types of parkinsonism.

Parkinson’s disease and other types of parkinsonism are chronic diseases of the brain and spinal cord, also referred to as the central nervous system or CNS. Parkinson’s can be treated, but there is no cure. Symptoms vary among people with Parkinson’s, but motor (movement) and cognitive problems are among the most common. Parkinson’s symptoms worsen over time, gradually becoming debilitating and causing severe disability. Parkinson’s is not fatal, and on average, people with Parkinson’s have similar lifespans as people without Parkinson’s.

What is Parkinson’s?

Deep inside the brain, regions called the basal ganglia and substantia nigra work together to ensure that the body moves smoothly. The substantia nigra produces a neurotransmitter – a chemical that helps nerves communicate – called dopamine. Messages sent by the brain to muscles to cause movement pass through the basal ganglia with the help of dopamine. In parkinsonism, cells in the substantia nigra gradually stop producing dopamine and die off. With too little dopamine, the basal ganglia cannot facilitate movement as well. Researchers believe parkinsonian symptoms begin when the level of dopamine falls to about half of normal levels.

Other parts of the brain try to compensate for the lack of dopamine, resulting in more dysfunction.

What causes Parkinson’s?

Different types of parkinsonism can have different causes. Some people have a strong family history of Parkinson’s, and genetics play a role. Others develop parkinsonism after taking certain psychiatric, anti-nausea, or illegal recreational drugs. For most people, Parkinson’s is most likely caused by a combination of inherited predisposition and environmental risk factors such as head injuries and exposure to radiation or toxins. Read more about causes of Parkinson’s.

The history of Parkinson’s

As early as 600 BCE, medical texts from India described the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Ayurvedic (traditional Indian medicine) doctors prescribed powdered seeds of the velvet bean, which may have been effective – the bean contains a small amount of Levodopa, the most common treatment for Parkinson’s today. In Ayurveda, Parkinson’s is called kampavata, from the Sanskrit kampa, meaning “shaking,” and vata, meaning “lack of muscular movement.” In the West, Greek physician Galen described cases of “shaking palsy” as early as 175 CE.

In 1817, English doctor James Parkinson published "An Essay on the Shaking Palsy," in which he described cases of movement disorders he treated in his practice and witnessed among London citizens. Parkinson recommended bloodletting and inducing blisters on the neck as treatment. From 1868 to 1881, French neurologist Jean-Marie Charcot completed several studies that helped define the condition. Charcot also promoted the naming of the disease for Dr. Parkinson. Charcot and his team published papers recommending two plant-based drugs, belladonna and hyoscyamine, as treatments for parkinsonism. These 19th century medications are in the anticholinergic and muscarinic antagonist classes of drugs respectively; other drugs in these classes are still used to treat Parkinson’s.

German neurologist Friedrich Lewy discovered abnormal “spherical inclusions” in 1912 during autopsies of people who died with Parkinson’s disease. Now known as Lewy bodies, these deposits of alpha-synuclein (aS) protein are understood to be one of the most common causes of dementia in people with parkinsonism.

Starting in the 1950s, researchers began to learn more about the neurotransmitter dopamine, where it is made in the brain, and its role in motor and cognitive functions. This research led to the discovery that Parkinson’s was caused by dopamine loss. This led to the realization that Levodopa increased dopamine, making it a good prospective treatment for Parkinson’s. Levodopa was first given to people with Parkinson’s in 1961 and immediately proved extremely effective. Levodopa remains the gold standard of Parkinson’s treatment.

Since the 1990s, scientists have found several genes associated with the development of Parkinson’s. In 2002, deep brain stimulation was approved to treat Parkinson’s by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Experiments transplanting stem cells to produce dopamine have been promising, and clinical trials are underway to test the safety and effectiveness of this treatment.

How common is Parkinson’s?

Approximately 10 million people around the world and more than 1 million in the United States have Parkinson’s disease. Close to 1 percent of the population over age 60 will develop Parkinson’s. About 60,000 new cases are diagnosed in the U.S. each year. Parkinson’s is typically diagnosed between the ages of 40 and 70, with the majority of people diagnosed in their 70s. Only about 4 percent of Parkinson’s disease cases are diagnosed before age 50; rarely, Parkinson’s has been diagnosed in people as young as 18.

How does Parkinson’s progress?

Everyone diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease experiences disease progression. Some types of parkinsonism and some individuals progress more quickly than others. People with Parkinson’s can experience different symptoms at different intensities, and earlier or later in the course of the disease. There are five stages of Parkinson’s that describe the most typical pattern of progression from mild motor symptoms that gradually worsen to cause increasing levels of disability. Some people experience cognitive symptoms with Parkinson’s that also worsen over time.

Resources

External resources

MyParkinsonsTeam resources

------------------------------------------------------

FAQs

Can you die from Parkinson’s?

Parkinson’s disease is not a fatal condition. For the most part, people with Parkinson’s have similar longevity as people without Parkinson’s. Parkinson’s can shorten the lifespan by about two years on average due to an increased risk of falls and pneumonia from aspirated (inhaled) food. According to one study, the risk of an earlier death differs between types of parkinsonism:

  • Multiple system atrophy – 6 years earlier than average
  • Lewy body dementia – 4 years earlier than average
  • Parkinson disease with dementia – 3.5 years earlier than average
  • Parkinson disease without dementia – 1 year earlier than average

Most people with parkinsonism die of the same conditions other people die of, such as cancer, stroke, and heart disease.

One exception is progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). This type of parkinsonism progresses quickly and causes severe disability within three to five years. Most people die within 10 years of being diagnosed with PSP. The most common cause of death in PSP is pneumonia.

How is Parkinson’s diagnosed?

There is not one conclusive test for Parkinson’s. Neurologists diagnose Parkinson’s with a combination of detailed patient history, neurological exam, and sometimes brain imaging studies. Parkinson’s is often misdiagnosed, especially by physicians who are not specialists in movement disorders. Learn more about how Parkinson’s is diagnosed.

What are the symptoms of Parkinson’s?

Parkinson’s symptoms vary between individuals. The most common Parkinson’s symptoms are motor difficulties including slowed movement, stiffness, and tremors, as well as cognitive issues such as dementia. Learn more about Parkinson’s symptoms.

How is Parkinson’s treated?

Parkinson’s cannot be cured, but there are many treatments that can improve symptoms. Most medications for Parkinson’s are prescribed to increase the brain’s level of dopamine or reduce the level of other neurotransmitters that contribute to tremors. If drugs become less effective, doctors may suggest surgery to implant a deep brain stimulation device or a pump that delivers medication directly to the intestines. Exercise has a neuroprotective effect on people with Parkinson’s, helping them slow the progress of the condition. Nutrition helps those with parkinsonism stay in their best condition. Some people participate in clinical trials or use medical marijuana to ease symptoms. Learn more about Parkinson’s treatments.

Is Parkinson’s contagious?

There is no evidence that Parkinson’s is contagious between people or that the disease develops from a virus, bacteria, or other infectious agent. No case of Parkinson’s spreading from person to person has ever been seen in the 200 years that the disease has been closely studied.

The cause of Parkinson’s remains unknown, and researchers continue to search for clues about how it originates. Scientists performed an experiment wherein they injected alpha-synuclein (aS), the abnormal protein in Lewy bodies, into the muscles of animals. The animal subjects then developed Parkinson’s symptoms. This experiment has led to the theory that Parkinson’s spreads from cell to cell within the body. However, no one knows how or why the disease begins in humans, or whether Parkinson’s is somehow introduced into the body by some foreign particle or toxin.

We know that Creutzfeldt-Jakob (mad cow), a neurodegenerative disease like Parkinson’s, is spread by consuming brain material from infected animals. There are theories that Alzheimer’s, another neurodegenerative condition, may be spread via blood transfusions or when surgical instruments are imperfectly sterilized after brain surgery on infected humans. Some researchers believe there may be a way in which Parkinson’s is transmitted between humans. Studies are ongoing, but there is no evidence that Parkinson’s is contagious. Read more about potential causes and risk factors for Parkinson’s.

Continue with Facebook
Sign up with your email
Already a Member? Log in
×

Welcome back!

Log in to gain access to the thousands of comments being shared on MyParkinsonsTeam.

log in
×